A & L Western Laboratories Oregon and california

Sampling Plants

Key to Stages of Growth

IMPORTANT! Official ratings for elements other than NO3-N, PO4-P, and soluble K on petioles or midribs may not exist. Therefore, interpret with caution when requesting the PT2 or PT5A package.

BLM bloom sampling EGF early green fruit PBL prebloom
VER veraison PRE preharvest EBL early bloom
HAR harvest ERF early ripe fruit FBL full bloom
ESN early season FRF full ripe fruit LBL late bloom
MSN midseason/growth MIT mid tillering FSQ first square
LSN late season MAT maximum tillering EBL first bloom
VEG vegetative growth PAI panicle initiation PBL peak bloom
EFL early flowering SIL silking FOB first open boll
BUT buttoning TAS tasseling ESN 3-4 leaf
BUL fruit bulking EFG early fern growth TIL tillering
HEA early heading MID midgrowth JNT jointing
PRE preharvest MFG mature fern growth BOO booting
HAR first harvest MRM most recently mature HEA heading


Key to Plant Parts

B blade L leaf/leaflet S stem/midstem/seedling
C center/cluster M midrib T tops
F flag leaf P petiole U underground stem
H hulls R root W whole above-ground portion


Available List of Crop Codes

ALFALFA

EBL-T             HAR-W (Core from whole bale)
Top 6-inch

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

{University of California Method}

{EBL-C (SO4-S)

{Center leaves

 

EBL-S (PO4-P+K)

Center stems

 

EBL-W (B+Mo)}

Whole top third}

ALMONDS

MAR-L
APR-L
MAY-L
MSN-L (Jun-Jul)
LSN (Aug-Sep)

Select the most recently matured leaves from non-fruiting, non-expanding spurs

PT2, PT3, PT4, Cl, Mo, NO3-N with ratings available

 

HAR-H (B in hulls)

PT2, B with ratings available
 

APRICOTS/CANNG APRICOTS/PLUMS/PRUNES/CHERRIES

MAR-L
APR-L
MAY-L
MSN-L (Jun-Jul)
LSN (Aug-Sep)

Select the most recently matured leaves from non-fruiting, non-expanding spurs

PT2, PT3, PT4, Cl, Mo, NO3-N with ratings available

 

ARTICHOKES

EBL-P
FBL-P (midharvest)
HAR-P

Select the lower 6 inches of the petiole

PT5, PT5A, and PT6 with ratings available for petioles

HAR-L

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves and/or petioles

ARUGULA

MRM-L (Select the most recently matured leaf)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ASPARAGUS

MFG-T (Top 12" of fern)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

MID-T (Top 4" of fern)

PT5 with ratings available

AVOCADOS

LSN-L (mid Aug-mid Oct. Select 5 to 7 month old spring cycle terminal leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

BANANAS

HAR-L (center strip of 2nd to 3rd fully developed leaf from the top)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

BASIL

No code, but select most recently matured leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

BEANS

EBL-B (trifoliate blade (excluding petiole) of most recently matured leaf)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ESN-P (Petiole only)
PBL-P
EBL-P

PT5 with ratings available

BEET, TABLE

ESN-L (5 weeks after seeding)
PRE-L (9 weeks after seeding)

PT2, PT3, PT4, SO4-S, Mo, Cl with ratings available

BEET, SUGAR

ESN-P (6 to 8" of growth)

MSN-P or MSN-B

PRE-P (5-6 weeks before harvest)

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

PT2, PT3, PT4, SO4-S, Mo, Cl with ratings available for blades

BLUEBERRIES

MSN-L (midshoot leaves off of current season's growth, near/at harvest, Jun-Aug)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

BROCCOLI

BUT-L

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ESN-M
BUT-M
PRE-M

PT5 available with ratings

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

MID-L or MID-M (midgrowth, early sprouts)
PRE-M (Preharvest)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for midribs

CABBAGE

HEA-L  or HEA-M (2 to 3 month old wrapper leaves or midribs)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for midribs

CANEBERRIES / RASPBERRIES / BLACKBERRIES / BOYSENBERRIES

ESN-L (pre/early bloom)
MSN-L (Jun-Aug)
Select the most recently matured leaves from laterals of primo canes

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

CACAO

EGF-L (pod filling)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo with ratings available

CANOLA

PRE-L (most recently matured (5th) leaf from the tip)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo with ratings available

CARROTS

MSN-L (tallest leaf,discarding petiole)
MSN-P (petiole of tallest leaf)

Select leaves after 4" tall/60 days after seeding

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

CAULIFLOWER

ESN-L or ESN-M
BUT-L or BUT-M
PRE-L or PRE-M (Select one week before harvest)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

CELERY / CELERIAC

MID-L or MID-P (4 to 6 weeks after seeding most recently matured leaf or petiole below te 1st node)
PRE-L or PRE-P (petiole or leaf above the 1st node)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl, with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

 

CHARD

ESN-L (5 weeks after seeding)
PRE-L (9 weeks after seeding)

PT2, PT3, PT4, with ratings available

CHESTNUTS

MSN-L (most recently matured leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

 

CHINESE CABBAGE

HEA-L

HEA-M

PT2, PT3, PT4 with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for midrib

CILANTRO

No code but select most recently matured leaf

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

CITRUS

LSN-L (terminal spring-flush leaves from non-fruiting shoots in Sep-Oct)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

CLOVER

EBL-T (top third of plant)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

COFFEE NON-L (non-bearing, 4th pair from tips)
BEA-L (bearing, 4th pair from tips between flowering and cherry ripening)
PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available
CONIFERS

LSN-S (whole seedlings, including washed roots)

Mature plants, no code, but select terminal 3" cuttings from current season's growth, mid Sep - mid Dec

PT2, PT3, PT4, with ratings available

CORN, GRAIN/COMMODITY/SILAGE

ESN-W (6-12" tall, whole seedling)
MSN-L (Pretassel, 3rd leaf/45-80 days)
TAS-L (Tasseling, opposite/below primary ear)
SIL-L (Silking, opposite/below primary ear)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ESN-M (6-12" tall, select basal 4-5" of midrib)

MSN-M (3-6' tall)

TAS-M (Tasseling/silking, select midrib above primary ear)

PT5 with ratings available

CORN, SWEET

TAS-L (6th leaf from base)
SIL-L (leaf opposite 1st ear)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ESN-M (6-12" tall, select basal 4-5" of midrib)

MSN-M (3-6' tall)

TAS-M (tasseling/silking)

PT5 with ratings available

COTTON

FSQ-P (before early July)
EBL-P
FBL-P or FBL-L (end of July)
FOB-P (end of Aug)
PRE-P (mid Sep)
Select the most recently mature leaf and/or petiole at all stages of growth

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for FBL-L only

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

CRANBERRIES

LSN-T (tops above fruiting uprights on current season growth, mid-Aug to mid-Sep)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

CUSTARD APPLE/CHERIMOYA

LSN-L (most recently matured leaves from non-fruiting shoots, Nov-Dec)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

EGGPLANTS

MRM-B (Select blade (no petiole!) from the most recently matured leaf at the small fruit stage)

PT2, PT3, PT3, Mo, Cl with ratings available

FEIJOAS / GUAVAS

MSN-L (3rd pair of leaves back from fruiting terminals, Jul-Aug)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

FIGS

APR-L

MAY-L

MSN-L (Jun-Jul)

LSN-L (Aug-Sep)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

FILBERTS  /HAZELNUTS

MSN-L (most recently matured midshoot leaves from current season's growth, Jul-Aug)

PT2, PT3, PT4, with ratings available

FLOWERS

No code, but select most recently matured leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

GARLIC / CHIVES

ESN-L (before bulbing)
BUL-L
LSN-L (post-bulbing)
Discard lower white section of most recently matured (tallest) leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

GINSENG

No code, but select most recently matured leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

GRAPES
PBL-P or B or L (Before bloom, select only from the unshaded leaves)
BLM-P or B or L (Select opposite the basal cluster when 2-3 calyptras fallen off)
MSN-P or B or L (Berry filling, 2nd leaf away from last cluster)
VER-P or B or L (Berry softening and coloring.  Select 6th to 7th leaf from the growing tip)
HAR-P or B or L (Select most recently matured leaves)
Petioles are better for determining Nam Cl toxicities
Blades are better for determining B toxicities
Ratings available for PT2, PT3, PT4, PT6, Mo, Cl, NO3-N
PT5, PT5A not recommended for petioles
GRASS / PASTURE / TIMOTHY / ORCHARD GRASS

No code, but select whole tops.

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

HOPS

JUN-P
JUL-P
AUG-P
Select petioles from most recently matured leaves on main vine, 5 to 6 ft from ground.

NO3 ratings only

KIWIFRUIT

MAY-P or MAY-L (Select 1st or 3rd leaf beyond fruit on fruiting vines)
MSN-P or MSN-L (Select mid-cane leaves on non-bearing vines)
NOV-P or NOV-L
PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 available for petioles

LETTUCE, GREENHOUSE

MRM-L

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

LETTUCE / ENDIVE

ESN-L or ESN-M (4th to 6th leaf stage)
HEA-L or HEA-M
HAR-L or HAR-M (select most recently matured leaves or midribs)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 available for ratings with midribs

FES-M
FHE-M
FHA-M
Fall crops - NO3-N ratings only

LITCHI No code, but select most recently matured leaves
MANGOES

No code, select most recently matured leaves in Jan-Feb, just prior to flowering

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

MACADAMIAS

No code, but select leaves from 2nd whorl below bud before new flush

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

MELONS / CANTALOUPES / PUMPKINS / CUCUMBERS / GREENHOUSE CUCUMBERS/ CUCURBITS / WATERMELONS

VEG-P OR VEG-L
EFL-P OR EFL-L
BUL-P OR BUL-L
HAR-P OR HAR-L
Select the most recently matured leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

PUMPKINS, GIANT  

EFL-L (Select the most recently matured leaves from a vine

PT2, PT3, PT4 with ratings available

MINT

EBL-L (Select leaves from top 6" of first unbranched stem)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ESN-S
MAY-S
JUN-S
JUL-S
AUG-S

Select top 6" of first unbranched stem, stripped of leaves

NO3-N ratings only

NECTARINES / PEACHES / FREEST PEACHES / CLING PEACHES / ASIAN PEARS/APPLES

MAR-L
APR-L
MAY-L
MSN-L (Jun-Jul
LSN (Aug-Sep)
Select basal to midshoot leaves from current season's fruiting shoots

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

OLIVES

MSN-L

LSN-L
Select basal to midshoot leaves from current season's fruiting shoots

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

ONIONS

ESN-P or ESN-L
MSN-P or MSN-L
LSN-P or LSN-L

PT5 with ratings available for petiole

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaf

ESN-R (washed roots before bulb enlargement) NO3-N only - more reliable than leaves

For this crop only, sample the most recently matured leaf for both "petiole" and "leaf"

ORNAMENTALS

No code, but select most recently matured leaves for general guidelines

Ratings are available for specific ornamental plants

PT2, PT3, Pt4 with ratings available

PALMS

No code, but select middle leaflets from most recently matured leaves, discarding the petiole/midrib

PT2. PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PAPAYAS

PBL-P (select petioles from the most recently matured leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PARSLEY

No code, but select the most recently matured leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PASSIONFRUIT

MSN-L (Select the most recently matured leaves on well developed lateral vines)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PEAS

EBL-L (Select the most recently matured leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PECANS

MSN-L (July)

LSN-L (Aug-Sep)

Select paired midshoot leaflets (not entire leaves!) from non-fruiting shoots

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PEPPERS / GH PEPPERS

MRM-L (Select the most recently matured leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PEPPERS, SWEET / HOT / CHILI

VEG-P or VEG-L

EFL-P or EFL-L

EGF-P or EGF-L

PRE-P or PRE-L

Select the most recently matured leaves or petioles

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (PASTURE)

MRM-L (Select most recently matured leaves from actively growing plants)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo with ratings available

PERSIMMONS

LSN-L (Most recently matured leaves from non-fruiting shoots in Sep-Oct)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PINEAPPLES

EFL-L (Most recently matured leaf at early inflorescence, discarding white base)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PISTACHIOS

MAR-L
APR-L
MAY-L
MSN-L (Jun-Jul)
LSN-L (Aug-Sep)
Select sub-terminal leaflets from leaves located midway on non-bearing branches

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

POMEGRANATES

NO OFFICIAL DATA

LSN-L (Select most recently matured leaves from non-fruiting branches)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

POTATOES

ESN-P or ESN-L (prebloom - 50 days after planting)
MSN-P or MSN-L (full bloom - 70 days after planting)
LSN-P or LSN-L (90 days after planting)
Select the most recently matured leaves, or petioles

PT6 with ratings available for petioles (PT5 not recommended)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

RADISH

No code but select most recently matured leaves at midseason

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo with ratings available

RICE/
WILD RICE

 

MIT-L (May-Jun, 30-55 days)
MAT-L (Jun-Jul, 55-65 days)
PAI-L (Panicle initiation, 60-80 days)
BOO-F (booting/heading)

Select the Y or flag leaf, depending on the development stage

Ratings available for PT2, PT3, PT4, Cl, Mo, soluble K, soluble PO4-P

PT5 or PT5A not recommended

ROSEMARY

No code, but select 2" to 3" long cuttings in summer

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

SAFFLOWER

ESN-L (Midstem leaves)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl available for leaves only

ESN-S (8"-12" bolted)
PBL-S (1st bud)
EBL-S (1st open flower)
Select stem half way down, discarding leaves

NO3-N, Sol K available for stem

SORGHUM / MILO

ESN-W (12" tall, whole plant)
MSN-L (37-65 days, most recently matured leaf)
HEA-L (2nd to 3rd leaf below head)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

SOYBEANS

EBL-L

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

SPINACH

ESN-L (30-50 days after planting)

PRE-L (mature)

MID-P (30-50 days after planting)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

PT5 with ratings available for petioles

SQUASH

EFL-L (Select the most recently matured leaf including the petiole)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

For other stages of growth, consider using "melon," a closely related species

STRAWBERRIES

MSN-P or MSN-L or MSN-B (for SO4-S only)

select leaves, petioles, or blades at the early fruiting stage

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo with ratings available for leaves
PT6, PT5, Cl with ratings available for petioles

SUDAN GRASS

No code, but select whole tops, 5 weeks between clippings

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

SUGARCANE

MSN-L (4th to 6th leaf from top)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for whole leaf

MSN-N     Total N only, dicard midrib

SUNFLOWERS

PBL-L (Select 3rd to 4th leaf below flower bud)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

SWEET POTATOES
MSN-P or MSN-L
VEG-P (NO3-N only)
BUL-P (NO3-N only)
PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for leaves only
PT5 with ratings available for MSN-P
TOBACCO

PBL-L (40-80 days after emergence)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

TOMATOES / CANNING / PROCESSING /

CHERRY

 

 

VEG-P or VEG-L
EFL-P or EFL-L (Fruit is 1" in diameter)
EGF-P or EGF-L (Fruit is 1" in diameter)
ERF-P or ERF-L (Fruit is 10-20% red)
 
PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for whole leaves (including petiole)
 
PT5 with ratings available for petioles (PT5A not recommended)
TOMATOES, FRESH / MARKET / TRELLIS

VEG-P or VEG-L
EFL-P or EFL-L (Fruit is 1" in diameter)
ERF-P or ERF-L (Fruit is 10-20% red)

FRF-P or FRF-L (Fruit is 100% red)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for whole leaves (including petiole)
 
PT5 with ratings available for petioles (PT5A not recommended)
TOMATOES, GREENHOUSE

MRM-L

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

TURF

No code, but specify variety for accurate ratings

PT2, PT3, PT4, Cl with ratings available

VETCH

PBL-T (Pre-flowering, upper tops)

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

WALNUTS

MAR-L
APR-L
MAY-L
MSN-L (June-July)
LSN-L (Aug-Sept)
Select terminal leaflets from non-fruiting fully expanded midshoot spur leaves

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available

WHEAT / BARLEY / OATS
GRAIN / MIXED GRAIN

ESN-W or ESN-U (U is 2" stem underground)
TIL-T or TIL-S (S is 2" stem aboveground)
JNT-T or JNT-S (T is top four leaves)
BOO-T or BOO-S
HEA-T

PT5 with ratings available for U and S

PT2, PT3, PT4, Mo, Cl with ratings available for W and T